Ontologies have been developed and investigated for some time in artificial intelligence to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse. More recently, the notion of ontologies has attracted attention from fields such as databases, intelligent information integration, cooperative information systems, information retrieval, electronic commerce, enterprise application integration, and knowledge management. This broadened interest in ontologies is based on the feature that they provide a machine-processable semantics of information sources that can be communicated among agents as well as between software artifacts and humans. This feature makes ontologies the backbone technology of the next web generation, i.e., the Semantic Web. Ontologies are currently applied in areas such as knowledge management in large company-wide networks and call centers, and in B2C, B2G, and B2B electronic commerce. In a nutshell, ontologies enable effective and efficient access to heterogeneous and distributed information sources. Given the increasing amount of information available online, this kind of support is becoming more important day by day.The author systematically introduces the notion of ontologies to the non-expert reader and demonstrates in detail how to apply this conceptual framework for improved intranet retrieval of corporate information and knowledge and for enhanced Internet-based electronic commerce. He also describes ontology languages (XML, RDF, and OWL) and ontology tools, and the application of ontologies.In addition to structural improvements, the second edition covers recent developments relating to the Semantic Web, and emerging web-based standard languages.___________
This complete guide to the Perl programming language ranges widely through the Perl programmer's universe, gathering together in a convenient form a wealth of information about Perl itself and its application to CGI scripts, XML processing, network programming, database interaction, and graphical user interfaces. The book is an ideal reference for experienced Perl programmers and beginners alike. With more than a million dedicated programmers, Perl is proving to be the best language for the latest trends in computing and business, including network programming and the ability to create and manage web sites. It's a language that every Unix system administrator and serious web developer needs to know. In the past few years, Perl has found its way into complex web applications of multinational banks, the U.S. Federal Reserve, and hundreds of large corporations. In this second edition, Perl in a Nutshell has been expanded to include coverage of Perl 5.8, with information on Unicode processing in Perl, new functions and modules that have been added to the core language, and up-to-date details on running Perl on the Win32 platform. The book also covers Perl modules for recent technologies such as XML and SOAP. Here are just some of the topics contained in this book: * Basic Perl reference * Quick reference to built-in functions and standard modules * CGI.pm and mod_perl * XML::* modules * DBI, the database-independent API for Perl * Sockets programming * LWP, the library for Web programming in Perl * Network programming with the Net modules * Perl/Tk, the Tk extension to Perl for graphical interfaces * Modules for interfacing with Win32 systems As part of the successful 'in a Nutshell' book series from O'Reilly & Associates, Perl in a Nutshell is for readers who want a single reference for all their needs. 'In a nutshell, Perl is designed to make the easy jobs easy, without making the hard jobs impossible.' -- Larry Wall, creator of Perl
When Microsoft releases Windows Vista, the new operating system will support applications that employ graphics now used by computer games--clear, stunning, and active. The cornerstone for building these new user interfaces is XAML ('Zammel'), the XML-based markup language that works with Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Vista's new graphics subsystem. An acronym for Extensible Application Markup Language, XAML offers a wealth of new controls and elements with exciting capabilities, including animation and rendering of 3D graphics. Windows developers are already jazzed by the possibilities of using XAML for fixed and flow format documents like PDF and HTML, 2D and 3D vector-based graphics, form development, animation, audio and video, transparent layering, and a lot more. Many feel that XAML will eliminate the need for multiple file formats or plug-ins (read: Flash), while lowering development costs and reducing time to market. The problem is, most developers don't know XAML. While it is fairly easy to understand, you still need a quick guide to bring you up to speed before Vista's release, and that's where this book's simple, no nonsense approach comes in. XAML in a Nutshell covers everything necessary to design user interfaces and .NET applications that take advantage of WPF. Prerequisites such as Microsoft's new unified build system, MSBuild, and core XAML constructs and syntax--including shortcuts--are all presented with plenty of examples to get you started. The Core XAML Reference section lets you dig even deeper into syntax rules and attributes for all XAML elements with a series of quick-reference chapters. This section divides XAML elements into logical categories of elements, controls, shapes and geometry, layout, animations, and transformations for easy reference. XAML in a Nutshell helps you learn, firsthand, how to use this XML-based markup language to implement the new generation of user interface graphics. As one reviewer noted, 'Strong code examples and an efficient, conversational style take the tedium out of learning XAML and make the subject understandable--even interesting.'
If you're a developer working with XML, you know there's a lot to know about XML, and the XML space is evolving almost moment by moment. But you don't need to commit every XML syntax, API, or XSLT transformation to memory; you only need to know where to find it. And if it's a detail that has to do with XML or its companion standards, you'll find it--clear, concise, useful, and well-organized--in the updated third edition of XML in a Nutshell. With XML in a Nutshell beside your keyboard, you'll be able to: * Quick-reference syntax rules and usage examples for the core XML technologies, including XML, DTDs, Xpath, XSLT, SAX, and DOM * Develop an understanding of well-formed XML, DTDs, namespaces, Unicode, and W3C XML Schema * Gain a working knowledge of key technologies used for narrative XML documents such as web pages, books, and articles technologies like XSLT, Xpath, Xlink, Xpointer, CSS, and XSL-FO * Build data-intensive XML applications * Understand the tools and APIs necessary to build data-intensive XML applications and process XML documents, including the event-based Simple API for XML (SAX2) and the tree-oriented Document Object Model (DOM) This powerful new edition is the comprehensive XML reference. Serious users of XML will find coverage on just about everything they need, from fundamental syntax rules, to details of DTD and XML Schema creation, to XSLT transformations, to APIs used for processing XML documents. XML in a Nutshell also covers XML 1.1, as well as updates to SAX2 and DOM Level 3 coverage. If you need explanation of how a technology works, or just need to quickly find the precise syntax for a particular piece, XML in a Nutshell puts the information at your fingertips. Simply put, XML in a Nutshell is the critical, must-have reference for any XML developer.