Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. XML Professional Publisher (XPP) is an automated XML based publishing system that was developed out of a proprietary typesetting system. XPP is a standards-based, content formatting and publishing application for the automatic composition, transformation, and rendering of XML, SGML or tagged ACII content into high-quality output into PostScript and PDF format. It holds the XML or SGML in its native format and it is able to re-export the data after paper pagination, even if corrections have been made in XPP. The software is used worldwide to produce a wide variety of publications including Technical Documentation, Scientific, Medical Journals (STM) Directory, Dictionary and Legal loose-leaf publishing. XPP was originally, in the early 1980s, a proprietary system which included the software and hardware.
The electronic health record (EHR) has been noted to improve health care, with the obvious advantages of retrieving information faster and easier, with greater legibility, and meeting and enabling auditing and legal requirements. Clinicians often use natural language when describing observations, diagnoses, and other biomedical concepts. This can make translation into machine-level semantics more complicated. To allow for documents to be read by computerized systems, a standard method of representing data would be preferred. Health Level 7 (HL7) has created standards for representing clinical documents, and for information exchange, usually implemented in extensible markup language (XML). The HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) is made up of these document standards (Dolin, et al., 2001). Clinical documents must conform to standards if the free text in clinical notes is to be utilized in an efficient, effective manner. There exists a need to create a CDA-compliant message specification for 'fact of death' for the purposes of notifying institutions connected to a health information exchange (HIE) about the death of a person.
ThelegaldomainrepresentsaprimarycandidateforWeb-basedinformationd- tribution,exchangeandmanagement,astesti?edbythenumerouse-government, e-justice and e-democracy initiatives worldwide. The last few years have seen a growing body of research and practice in the ?eld of arti?cial intelligence and law addressing aspects such as automated legal reasoning and argumentation, semantic and cross-languagelegalinformation retrieval, document classi?cation, legal drafting, legal knowledge discovery and extraction. Many e?orts have also been devoted to the construction of legal ontologies and their application to the law domain. A number of di?erent workshops and conferences have been organized on these topics in the framework of the arti?cial intelligence and law community: among them, the ICAIL (International Conference on Arti?cial Intelligence and Law) and the Jurix (International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Inf- mation Systems) conferences, several workshops on legal ontologies have been held by the AI&Law Association (LOAIT) and by the Legal XML Community (LegalXMLWorkshopsandLegalXML Summer School).In allthese events,the topics of languageresourcesand human language technologiesreceiveincreasing attention. The situation is quite di?erent within the computational linguistics com- nity, where little attention has been paid to the legal domain besides a few isolated contributions and/or projects focussing on the processing of legal texts.
Information technology has now pervaded the legal sector, and the very modern concepts of e-law and e-justice show that automation processes are ubiquitous. European policies on transparency and information society, in particular, require the use of technology and its steady improvement.Some of the revised papers presented in this book originate from a workshop held at the European University Institute of Florence, Italy, in December 2006. The workshop was devoted to the discussion of the different ways of understanding and explaining contemporary law, for the purpose of building computable models of it -- especially models enabling the development of computer applications for the legal domain. During the course of the following year, several new contributions, provided by a number of ongoing (or recently finished) European projects on computation and law, were received, discussed and reviewed to complete the survey.This book presents 20 thoroughly refereed revised papers on the hot topics under research in different EU projects: legislative XML, legal ontologies, semantic web, search and meta-search engines, web services, system architecture, dialectic systems, dialogue games, multi-agent systems (MAS), legal argumentation, legal reasoning, e-justice, and online dispute resolution. The papers are organized in topical sections on knowledge representation, ontologies and XML legislative drafting, knowledge representation, legal ontologies and information retrieval, argumentation and legal reasoning, normative and multi-agent systems, and online dispute resolution.
This work deals with the applications of Semantic Publishing technologies in the legal domain, i.e., the use of Semantic Web technologies to address issues related to the Legal Scholarly Publishing. Research in the field of Law has a long tradition in the application of semantic technologies, such as Semantic Web and Linked Data, to real-world scenarios. This book investigates and proposes solutions for three main issues that Semantic Publishing needs to address within the context of the Legal Scholarly Publishing: the need of tools for linking document text to a formal representation of its meaning, the lack of complete metadata schemas for describing documents according to the publishing vocabulary and the absence of effective tools and user interfaces for easily acting on semantic publishing models and theories.In particular, this work introduces EARMARK, a markup meta language that allows one to create markup documents without the structural and semantic limits imposed by markup languages such as XML. EARMARK is a platform to link the content layer of a document with its intended formal semantics and it can be used with the Semantic Publishing and Referencing (SPAR) Ontologies, another topic in this book. SPAR Ontologies are a collection of formal models providing an upper semantic layer for describing the publishing domain. Using EARMARK as a foundation for SPAR descriptions opens up to a semantic characterisation of all the aspects of a document and of its parts. Finally, four user-friendly tools are introduced: LODE, KC-Viz, Graffoo and Gaffe. They were expressly developed to facilitate the interaction of publishers and domain experts with Semantic Publishing technologies by shielding such users from the underlying formalisms and semantic models of such technologies.
The Semantic Web combines the descriptive languages RDF (Resource Description Framework) and OWL (Web Ontology Language), with the data-centric, customizable XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) to provide descriptions of the content of Web documents. These machine-interpretable descriptions allow more intelligent software systems to be written, automating the analysis and exploitation of web-based information. Software agents will be able to create automatically new services from already published services, with potentially huge implications for models of e-Business. Semantic Web Technologies provides a comprehensive overview of key semantic knowledge technologies and research. The authors explain (semi-)automatic ontology generation and metadata extraction in depth, along with ontology management and mediation. Further chapters examine how Semantic Web technology is being applied in knowledge management ('Semantic Information Access') and in the next generation of Web services. Semantic Web Technologies: * Provides a comprehensive exposition of the state-of-the art in Semantic Web research and key technologies. * Explains the use of ontologies and metadata to achieve machine-interpretability. * Describes methods for ontology learning and metadata generation. * Discusses ontology management and evolution, covering ontology change detection and propagation, ontology dependency and mediation. * Illustrates the theoretical concepts with three case studies on industrial applications in digital libraries, the legal sector and the telecommunication industry. Graduate and advanced undergraduate students, academic and industrial researchers in the field will all find Semantic Web Technologies an essential guide to the technologies of the Semantic Web.
Do you take the shortest route instead of the side roads whenyou're trying to get somewhere? Do you choose the streamlinedmodel instead of one loaded with gizmos and gadgets? Do you valueease over extras? WordPerfect 12 is practical software designed tohelp you create great-looking, readable documents. Whetheryou're a recent convert from longhand (welcome to the modernworld) or a word processing pro, WordPerfect12 For Dummies covers what you need to know, including: The basics, like using menus and toolbars, saving, editing, andprinting files, getting help, and more Editing and formatting text, adding page numbers, charts, coolfonts, borders, backgrounds, and more Using templates to make your life easier Creating envelopes and labels and doing multiple mailings Using the compatibility toolbars, Workspace Manager, OfficeReady template browser, and wireless office capabilities Creating and integrating columns, tables and graphics Creating Web pages, Adobe Acrobat Documents, XML files, andeven Microsoft Office documents Publishing your document as a Web Page WordPerfect12 For Dummies was written by Margaret LevineYoung, David C. Kay, and Richard Wagner, all computer gurus whohave written or contributed to other For Dummies books andnumerous computer books. After it shows you how to do what you needto do, it inspires you to do things you probably didn't knowyou could do, such as: Changing Workspaces to the WordPerfect Legal mode if you needto create legal documents Choosing from 26 different tool bars to fit the way you workand what you're working on Using WordPerfect Office Ready for 40 additional templates Printing bar codes Using Microsoft Outlook contact information in WordPerfect First you'll get comfortable with WordPerfect 12, and thenyou'll get confident and want to explore more. Whether youare a beginner, need a quick refresher, or want to take advantageof the advanced functions, with its complete index, WordPerfect12 For Dummies will be the reference you relyon.
XML is a text-based markup language that has taken the programming world by storm. More powerful than HTML yet less demanding than SGML, XML has proven itself to be flexible and resilient. XML is the perfect tool for formatting documents with even the smallest bit of complexity, from Web pages to legal contracts to books. However, XML has also proven itself to be indispensable for organizing and conveying other sorts of data as well, thus its central role in web services like SOAP and XML-RPC.As the Perl programming language was tailor-made for manipulating text, few people have disputed the fact that Perl and XML are perfectly suited for one another. The only question has been what's the best way to do it. That's where this book comes in.Perl & XML is aimed at Perl programmers who need to work with XML documents and data. The book covers all the major modules for XML processing in Perl, including XML::Simple, XML::Parser, XML::LibXML, XML::XPath, XML::Writer, XML::Pyx, XML::Parser::PerlSAX, XML::SAX, XML::SimpleObject, XML::TreeBuilder, XML::Grove, XML::DOM, XML::RSS, XML::Generator::DBI, and SOAP::Lite. But this book is more than just a listing of modules; it gives a complete, comprehensive tour of the landscape of Perl and XML, making sense of the myriad of modules, terminology, and techniques.This book covers: * parsing XML documents and writing them out again * working with event streams and SAX * tree processing and the Document Object Model * advanced tree processing with XPath and XSLT Most valuably, the last two chapters of Perl & XML give complete examples of XML applications, pulling together all the tools at your disposal. All together, Perl & XML is the single book that gives you a solid grounding in XML processing with Perl.
The Semantic Web combines the descriptive languages RDF (ResourceDescription Framework) and OWL (Web Ontology Language), with thedata-centric, customizable XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) toprovide descriptions of the content of Web documents. Thesemachine-interpretable descriptions allow more intelligent softwaresystems to be written, automating the analysis and exploitation ofweb-based information. Software agents will be able to create automatically newservices from already published services, with potentially hugeimplications for models of e-Business. Semantic Web Technologies provides a comprehensiveoverview of key semantic knowledge technologies and research. The authors explain (semi-)automatic ontology generation andmetadata extraction in depth, along with ontology management andmediation. Further chapters examine how Semantic Web technology isbeing applied in knowledge management ('Semantic InformationAccess') and in the next generation of Web services. Semantic Web Technologies: * Provides a comprehensive exposition of the state-of-the art inSemantic Web research and key technologies. * Explains the use of ontologies and metadata to achievemachine-interpretability. * Describes methods for ontology learning and metadatageneration. * Discusses ontology management and evolution, covering ontologychange detection and propagation, ontology dependency andmediation. * Illustrates the theoretical concepts with three case studies onindustrial applications in digital libraries, the legal sector andthe telecommunication industry. Graduate and advanced undergraduate students, academic andindustrial researchers in the field will all find Semantic WebTechnologies an essential guide to the technologies of theSemantic Web.