This book describes novel software architectures for the integration of deep and shallow natural language processing (NLP) components in language technology. The generic markup language XML and the XML transformation language XSLT are used for flexible combination of linguistic markup produced by multiple NLP components. Shallow NLP components such as tokenizers, part-of-speech taggers, named entity recognizers and shallow parsers are combined with a deep parser, operating grammars written in the spirit of the Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) theory. The integration paradigm enables synergy leading to more robust deep parsing with increased coverage. It also constitutes a division of labor: the deep grammar models general, correct language use, while shallow systems are responsible for domain-specific extensions. Applications are presented in question answering, information extraction, natural language understanding, ontologies and the Semantic Web. The book addresses to software engineers, computational linguists and language technology engineers.
Integrating Natural Language Processing Components with XML and XSLT:Representations and Hybrid Architectures Ulrich Schäfer
GNU Emacs is the most popular and widespread of the Emacs family of editors. It is also the most powerful and flexible. Unlike all other text editors, GNU Emacs is a complete working environment--you can stay within Emacs all day without leaving. Learning GNU Emacs, 3rd Edition tells readers how to get started with the GNU Emacs editor. It is a thorough guide that will also ´´grow´´ with you: as you become more proficient, this book will help you learn how to use Emacs more effectively. It takes you from basic Emacs usage (simple text editing) to moderately complicated customization and programming.The third edition of Learning GNU Emacs describes Emacs 21.3 from the ground up, including new user interface features such as an icon-based toolbar and an interactive interface to Emacs customization. A new chapter details how to install and run Emacs on Mac OS X, Windows, and Linux, including tips for using Emacs effectively on those platforms.Learning GNU Emacs, third edition, covers: * How to edit files with Emacs * Using the operating system shell through Emacs * How to use multiple buffers, windows, and frames * Customizing Emacs interactively and through startup files * Writing macros to circumvent repetitious tasks * Emacs as a programming environment for Java, C++, and Perl, among others * Using Emacs as an integrated development environment (IDE) * Integrating Emacs with CVS, Subversion and other change control systems for projects with multiple developers * Writing HTML, XHTML, and XML with Emacs * The basics of Emacs Lisp The book is aimed at new Emacs users, whether or not they are programmers. Also useful for readers switching from other Emacs implementations to GNU Emacs.
For Database Systems and Database Design and Application courses offered at the junior, senior and graduate levels in Computer Science departments. Written by well-known computer scientists, this introduction to database systems offers a comprehensive approach, focusing on database design, database use, and implementation of database applications and database management systems. The first half of the book provides in-depth coverage of databases from the point of view of the database designer, user, and application programmer. It covers the latest database standards SQL:1999, SQL/PSM, SQL/CLI, JDBC, ODL, and XML, with broader coverage of SQL than most other texts. The second half of the book provides in-depth coverage of databases from the point of view of the DBMS implementor. It focuses on storage structures, query processing, and transaction management. The book covers the main techniques in these areas with broader coverage of query optimization than most other texts, along with advanced topics including multidimensional and bitmap indexes, distributed transactions, and information integration techniques. Resources: Open access Author Website ¿http://infolab.stanford.edu/~ullman/dscb.html ¿includes Power Point slides, teaching notes, assignments, projects, Oracle Programming Guidelines, and solutions to selected exercises. Instructor only Pearson Resources: Complete Solutions Manual (click on the Resources tab above to view downloadable files) Features + Benefits Many real-world examples. Offers a readable and engaging presentation. Extensive treatment of database modeling?Includes detailed and separate explanations of how to use E/R and ODL to design databases. Teaches about this important first step of the planning process. Excellent, up-to-date and detailed coverage of SQL?Includes coverage of object-relational systems and many aspects of the new SQL:1999 standard. Provides a more extensive treatment of query processing than other books on the market. Discussion of the technologies used to connect database programming with C or Java code?Includes discussions of SQL/PSM, SQL/CLI, and JDBC. Gives students practical advice on integrating state-of-the-art technologies with databases. Coverage of advanced issues important to database designers and users. Includes discussions of views, integrity constraints, assertions, triggers, transactions, authorization, and recursion in SQL:1999. Discussions of how to successfully plan a database application before building it. Reflects how these plans are developed in the real world. Coverage of topics such as designing storage structures and implementing a variety of indexing schemes. Shows students how to build efficient database management systems. Extensive coverage of query processing and optimization. Shows students how to fine tune database systems to improve performance. Comprehensive coverage of transaction processing mechanisms for concurrency control and recovery, including distributed and long-duration transactions. Shows how to design complex database systems that can handle real-world business applications. Coverage of information integration, including data warehousing, mediation, OLAP, data-cube systems, and data mining. Exposes readers to cutting edge technology used in business applications. Extensive exercises?In almost every section. Provides students with the opportunity to practice and apply the concepts they´ve learned in each chapter. Please note that GOAL/Gradiance is no longer available with this book. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 The Worlds of Database Systems 1.1 The Evolution of Database Systems 1.1.1 Early Database Management Systems 1.1.2 Relational Database Systems 1.1.3 Smaller and Smaller Systems 1.1.4 Bigger and Bigger Systems 1.1.5 Information Integration 1.2 Overview of a Database Management System 1.2.1 Data-Definition Language Commands 1.2.2 Overview of Query Processing 1.2.3 Storage and Buffer Management 1.2.4 Transaction Processing 1.2.5 The Query Processor 1.3 Outline of Database-System Studies 1.4 References for Chapter 1 PART I: Relational Database Modeling 2 The Relational Model of Data 2.1 An Overview of Data Models 2.1.1 What is a Data Model? 2.1.2 Important Data Models 2.1.3 The Relational Model in Brief 2.1.4 The Semistructured Model in Brief 2.1.5 Other Data Models 2.1.6 Comparison of Modeling Approaches 2.2 Basics of the Relational Model 2.2.1 Attributes 2.2.2 Schemas 2.2.3 Tuples 2.2.4 Domains 2.2.5 Equivalent Representations of a